Events, Holidays, Kouvola, Travel

Vol 26, Issue 20, 22 March 2024 

A mountain is a type of terrain characterized by a sharp rise in terrain with obvious slopes and foothills. The following vertex shapes are distinguished:

  1. peak-shaped;
  2. platform;
  3. domed.

There are also other types. Underwater mountain ranges protruding above the surface is islands. By origin, the uplands are divided into volcanic and tectonodenudational. Several types of microrelief can be found on high mountain ranges. Different sections of the slopes differ in their climate.

The mountains differ in height. It varies from several hundred meters to 2 kilometers or more. There are free-standing peaks or extended ridges composed of many approximate cones. The surface structure consists of sedimentary and igneous rocks. Therefore, minerals are often found on the slopes and in the depths. The following elements of the mountain relief are distinguished: Hills – the height of a cone-shaped shape, on which there are peaks, areas of connection of slopes and the surrounding area. Ridges are a long collection of hills hundreds and thousands of kilometers long.

The slopes can be gentle, covered with vegetation on one side, or steep rocky on the other. A hollow is an extended depression in the mountain that forms a spillway line. A saddle is a noticeable decrease in height between two peaks. Such sites are often located at the beginning of a ravine going downhill. A basin is a depression located below sea level, which has slopes and a clearly distinguishable strip of confluence with the main relief. Mountains are formed because of the transformation of the earth’s surface. They are constantly being modified or destroyed.

The slopes are gradually eroded by water. Soil and rock particles move due to the downward movement of the liquid. Gradually, even the highest relief formations turn into hills and plains.

The rock formations that exist on the Earth’s surface are quite young compared to the geological history of the planet. The Himalayas, the Andes, and the Alps have formed only in the last 50 million years. Geological processes are constantly taking place inside such systems, which are accompanied by the formation of new ridges: an earthquake, an eruption.

The highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest, reaches 9 km. It is located on the Himalayan Mountain range in South Asia, passing through 5 countries. Everest is located on the border of China and Nepal. The highest point is 8848 m. However, scientists still cannot come to a consensus on these indicators, since the mountain is constantly growing and moving. The age exceeds 60 million years. The upland was formed because of the collision of the Indian and Asian lithospheric plates. Due to seismic activity, the height increases by 0.25 inches every year.

Vicepruf is the lowest mountain, located in Australia, in the state of Victoria. The height of the peak is 148 m above sea level. However, the mountain itself rises only 43 m above the surrounding area. Scientists have debated several times whether to call it a mountain or a hill. It is a large bare granite stratum lying on a plain with a rocky peak in the shape of a cone. Such hills are ubiquitous in the western region of Victoria. The mountain hides a unique mineral. A clear pink mineral called wycheproofite is rarely found in other areas of Victoria.

Kseniia Parshina
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